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Hemp Foods and THC Levels:
A Scientific Assessment

by Franjo Grotenhermen, M.D., Michael Karus, and Daike Lohmeyer

Part II (continued)

6 Literature

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Abel, E. L.: Marihuana and sex: a critical survey. Drug Alcohol Depend. (1981) 8:1-22.

Abel, E. L.: Effects of delta 9-THC on pregnancy and offspring in rats. Neurobehav. Toxicol. Teratol. (1984) 6:29-32.

Abel, E. L.: Effects of prenatal exposure to cannabinoids. NIDA Res. Monogr. (1985) 59:20-35.

Abel, E. L., Dintcheff, B. A.: Increased marihuana-induced fetotoxicity by a low dose of concomitant alcohol administration. J. Stud. Alcohol (1986) 47:440-443.

Abrahamov, A., Abrahamov, A., Mechoulam, R.: An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology. Life Sci. (1995) 56:2097-2102.

Abrams, R. M., Cook, C. E., Davis, K. H., Niederreither, K., Jaeger, M. J., Szeto, H. H.: Plasma delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in pregnant sheep and fetus after inhalation of smoke from a marijuana cigarette. Alcohol Drug Res. (1985-1986) 6:361-369.

Agurell, S., Halldin, M., Lindgren, J. E., Ohlsson, A., Widman, M., Gillespie, H., Hollister, L.: Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids with emphasis on man. Pharmacol Rev (1986) 38:21-43.

Allentuck, S.: Medical aspects. In: Cattell, J. (ed.): The Marijuana Problem in the City of New York. Ronald Press, New York 1944, p. 35-64. Reprinted in: Mikuriya, T. H. (ed.): Marjuana: Medical Papers 1839-1972. Medi-Comp Press, Oakland 1973.

Alt, A., Reinhardt, G.: Speiseöle auf Hanfbasis und ihr Einfluß auf die Ergebnisse von Urin- und Blutanalysen. Blutalkohol (1996) 33:347-356.

Alt, A., Reinhardt, G.: Nahrungsmittel auf Hanfbasis und deren forensische Bedeutung. Blutalkohol (1997) 34:286-293.

Asch, R. H., Smith, C. G.: Effects of delta 9-THC, the principal psychoactive component of marijuana, during pregnancy in the rhesus monkey. J. Reprod. Med. (1986) 31:1071-1081.

Ashfaq, M. K., Watson, E. S., elSohly, H. N.: The effect of subacute marijuana smoke inhalation on experimentally induced dermonecrosis by S. aureus infection. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. (1987) 9:319-331.

Astley, S.: Analysis of facial shape in children gestationally exposed to marijuana, alcohol and/or cocaine. Pediatrics (1992) 89:67-77.

Baczynsky, W. O., Zimmerman, A. M.: Effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol and cannabidiol on the immune system in mice. I. In vivo investigation of the primary and secondary immune response. Pharmacology (1983) 26:1-11.

BAG: Verwendung von Hanf in Lebensmitteln und Gebrauchsgegenständen. Abteilung Lebensmittelrecht des Bundesamtes für Gesundheit der Schweiz, Kreisschreiben Nr. 2 vom 13.3.1996.

Bailey, J. R., Cunny, H. C., Paule, M. G., Slikker, W., Jr.: Fetal disposition of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during late pregnancy in the rhesus monkey. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1987) 90:315-321.

Baker, P. B., Taylor, B. J., Gough, T. A.: The tetrahydrocannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid content of Cannabis products. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1981) 33:369-372.

Banerjee, B. N., Sofia, R. D., Erikson, D., Ivins, N. J.: Toxicity of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administered subcutaneously for 13 days to female rabbits. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health (1976) 1:769-776.

Barr, H. M., Streissguth, A. P., Martin, D. C., Herman, C. S.: Infant size at 8 months of age: relationship to maternal use of alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine during pregnancy. Pediatrics (1984) 74:336-341.

Bast, G. E.: Influence of solubility and permeant size on absorption and metabolism of xenobiotics in rabbit skin. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. (1997) 16:435-440.

Beal, J. E., Olson, R., Laubenstein, L., Morales, J. O., Bellman, P., Yangco, B., Lefkowitz, L., Plasse, T. F., Shepard, K. V.: Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS. J. Pain Symptom. Manage. (1995) 10:89-97.

Behnke, M., Eyler, F. D.: The consequences of prenatal substance use for the developing fetus, newborn, and young child. Int. J. Addict. (1993) 28:1341-1391.

Bell, R., Taylor, E. H., Ackerman, B., Pappas, A. A.: Interpretation of urine quantitative 11-nor-delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid to determine abstinence from marijuana smoking. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1989) 27:109-115.

Belue, R. C., Howlett, A. C., Westlake, T. M., Hutchings, D. E.: The ontogeny of cannabinoid receptors in the brain of postnatal and aging rats. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. (1995) 17:25-30.

Berti, J. J., Lipsky, J. J.: Transcutaneous drug delivery: a practical review. Mayo Clin. Proc. (1995) 70:581-586.

Birmingham, M. K., Bartova, A.: Effects of cannabinol derivatives on blood pressure, body weight, pituitary-adrenal function, and mitochondrial respiration in the rat. In: Nahas, G. G., et al. (eds.): Marihuana: chemistry, biochemistry, and cellular effects. Springer, New York 1976. p. 425-438.

Blackard, C., Tennes, K.: Human placental transfer of cannabinoids. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) 311:797.

Blanchard, D. K., Newton, C., Klein, T. W., Stewart, W. E., 2d., Friedman, H.: In vitro and in vivo suppressive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on interferon production by murine spleen cells. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1986) 8:819-824.

Bloch, E.: Effects of marijuana and cannabinoids on reproduction, endocrine function, development and chromosomes. In: Fehr, K. O., Kalant, H. (eds.): Cannabis and Health Hazards. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto 1983.

Block, R. I., Farinpour, R., Schlechte, J. A.: Effects of chronic marijuana use on testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin and cortisol in men and women. Drug Alcohol Depend. (1991) 28:121-128.

Bradley, S. G., Munson, A. E., Dewey, W. L., Harris, L. S.: Enhanced susceptibility of mice to combinations of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and live or killed gram-negative bacteria. Infect. Immun. (1977) 17:325-329.

Brenneisen, R.: Psychotrope Drogen. II. Bestimmung der Cannabinoide in Cannabis sativa L. und in Cannabisprodukten mittels Hochdruckflüssigkeitschromatographie (HPLC). Pharm. Acta Helv. (1984) 59:247-259.

Brenneisen, R., Egli, A., Elsohly, M. A., Henn, V., Spiess, Y.: The effect of orally and rectally administered delta 9- tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1996) 34:446-452.

Cabral, G. A., Mishkin, E. M., Marciano-Cabral, F., Coleman, P., Harris, L., Munson, A. E.: Effect of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on herpes simplex virus type 2 vaginal infection in the guinea pig. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1986) 182:181-186.

Cabral, G. A., Lockmuller, J. C., Mishkin, E. M.: Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol decreases alpha/beta interferon response to herpes simplex virus type 2 in the B6C3F1 mouse. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1986b) 181:305-311.

Cabral, G. A., McNerney, P. J., Mishkin, E. M.: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits the splenocyte proliferative response to herpes simplex virus type 2. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. (1987) 9:361-370.

Cabral, G. A., Mishkin, E. M.: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits macrophage protein expression in response to bacterial immunomodulators. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health (1989) 26:175-182.

Cabral, G. A., Vasquez, R.: Effects of marijuana on macrophage function. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1991) 288:93-105.

Callaway J. C., Weeks, R. A., Raymon, L. P., Walls, H. C., Hearn, W. L.: A positive THC urinalysis from hemp (Cannabis) seed oil. J. Anal. Toxicol. (1997) 21:319-320.

Campbell, A. M., Evans, M., Thomson, J. L., Williams, M. J.: Cerebral atrophy in young Cannabis smokers. Lancet (1971) 2:1219-1224.

Campbell, D. B.: Extrapolation from animals to man. The integration of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1996) 801:116-135.

Chakravarty, I., Sheth, A. R., Ghosh, J. J.: Effect of acute delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment on serum luteinizing hormone and prolactin levels in adult female rats. Fertil. Steril. (1975) 26:947-948.

Chan, P. C., Sills, R. C., Braun, A. G., Haseman, J. K., Bucher, J. R.: Toxicity and carcinogenicity of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Fischer rats and B6C3F1 mice. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. (1996) 30:109-117.

Chao, F. C., Green, D. E., Forrest, I. S., Kaplan, J. N., Winship-Ball, A., Braude, M.: The passage of 14C-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol into the milk of lactating squirrel monkeys. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. (1976) 15:303-317.

Charlebois, A. T., Fried, P. A.: Interactive effects of nutrition and Cannabis upon rat perinatal development. Dev. Psychobiol. (1980) 13:591-605.

Chesher, G. B., Bird, K. D., Jackson, D. M., Perrignon, A., Starmer, G. A.: The effects of orally administered delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in man on mood and performance measures: a dose-response study. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1990) 35:861-864.

Coggins, W. J., Swenson, E. W., Dawson, W. W., Fernandez-Salas, A., Hernandez-Bolanos, J., Jiminez-Antillon, C. F., Solano, J. R., Vinocour, R., Faerron-Valdez, F.: Health status of chronic heavy Cannabis users. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1976) 282:148-161.

Cohen, S.: The 94-day Cannabis study. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1976) 282:211-220.

Cone, E. J., Johnson, R. E., Moore, J. D., Roache, J. D.: Acute effects of smoking marijuana on hormones, subjective effects and performance in male human subjects. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1986) 24:1749-1754.

Copeland, K. C., Underwood, L. E., Van Wyk, J. J.: Marihuana smoking and pubertal arrest. J. Pediatr. (1980) 96:1079-1080.

Costantino, A., Schwartz, R. H., Kaplan, P. Hemp oil ingestion causes positive urine tests for delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid. J. Anal. Toxicol. (1997) 21:482-485.

Cruickshank, E. K.: Physical assessment of 30 chronic Cannabis users and 30 matched controls. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1976) 282:162-167.

Cushman, P., Jr.: Plasma testosterone levels in healthy male marijuana smokers. Am. J. Drug Alcohol Abuse (1975) 2:269-275.

Cushman, P., Grieco, M., Gupta, S.: Reduction in T-lymphocytes forming active rosettes in chronic marijuana smokers. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Biopharm. (1975b) 12:217-220.

Cushman, P., Khurana, R., Hashim, G.: Tetrahydrocannabinol: evidence for reduced rosette formation by normal T lymphocytes. In: Braude, M. C., Szara, S., (eds.): Pharmacology of marihuana. Vol 1. Raven Press, New York 1976. p. 207-209.

Cushman, P., Khurana, R.: Marijuana and T lymphocyte rosettes. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1976) 9:310-317.

Cushman, P., Jr., Khurana, R.: A controlled cycle of tetrahydrocannabinol smoking: T and B cell rosette formation. Life Sci. (1977) 20:971-980.

Daaka, Y., Zhu, W., Friedman, H., Klein, T. W.: Induction of interleukin-2 receptor alpha gene by delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol is mediated by nuclear factor kappaB and CB1 cannabinoid receptor. DNA Cell Biol. (1997) 16:301-309.

Dahl, R. E., Scher, M. S., Williamson, D. E., Robles, N., Day, N.: A longitudinal study of prenatal marijuana use. Effects on sleep and arousal at age 3 years. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. (1995) 149:145-150.

Dax, E. M., Pilotte, N. S., Adler, W. H., Nagel, J. E., Lange, W. R.,: The effects of 9-ene-tetrahydrocannabinol on hormone release and immune function. J. Steroid Biochem. (1989) 34:263-270.

Dax, E. M., Pilotte, N. S., Adler, W. H., Nagel, J. E., Lange, W. R.: Short-term delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) does not affect neuroendocrine or immune parameters. NIDA Res. Monogr. (1991) 105:567-568.

Day, N. L., Sambamoorthi, U., Taylor, P., Richardson, G., Robles, N., Jhon, Y., Scher, M., Stopfer, D., Cornelius, M., Jasperse, D.: Prenatal marijuana use and neonatal outcome. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. (1991) 13:329-334.

Derocq, J. M., Segui, M., Marchand, J., Le Fur, G., Casellas, P.: Cannabinoids enhance human B-cell growth at low nanomolar concentrations. FEBS Lett. (1995) 369:177-182.

Derungs, R., Känzig, A., Mägert, A.: Qualität von Hanfsamenöl aus der Schweiz. Agrarforschung (1997) 4:451-453.

Devane, W. A., Hanus, L., Breuer, A., Pertwee, R. G., Stevenson, L. A., Griffin, G., Gibson, D., Mandelbaum, A., Etinger, A., Mechoulam, R.: Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Science (1992) 258:1946-1949.

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Djeu, J. Y., Wang, M., Friedman, H.: Adverse effect of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human neutrophil function. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1991) 288:57-62.

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Fleischman, R. W., Hayden, D. W., Rosenkrantz, H., Braude, M. C.: Teratologic evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in mice, including a review of the literature. Teratology (1975) 12:47-50.

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Fried, P. A., Watkinson, B., Willan, A.: Marijuana use during pregnancy and decreased length of gestation. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1984) 150:23-27.

Fried, P. A., O'Connell, C. M.: A comparison of the effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol, Cannabis and caffeine on birth size and subsequent growth. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. (1987) 9:79-85.

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Friedman, H.: Suppression by cannabinoids of a cloned cell line with natural killer cell activity. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1988) 187:355-359.

Friedman, M., Cepero, M. L., Klein, T., Friedman, H.: Suppressive effect of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in vitro on phagocytosis by murine macrophages. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1986) 182:225-228.

Friedrich, G., Nepita, W., Andre, T.: Serumtestosteronkonzentrationen bei Cannabis- und Opiatkonsumenten. Beitr. Gerichtl. Med. (1990) 48:57-66.

Frytak, S., Moertel, C. G., O'Fallon, J. R., Rubin, J., Creagan, E. T., O'Connell, M. J., Schutt, A. J., Schwartau, N. W.: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a plazebo. Ann. Intern. Med. (1979) 91:825-830.

Frytak, S., Moertel, C. G., Rubin, J.: Metabolic studies of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer patients.: Cancer Treat. Rep. (1984) 68:1427-1431.

Garcia-Gil, L., De Miguel, R., Munoz, R. M., Cebeira, M., Villanua, M. A., Ramos, J. A., Fernandez-Ruiz, J. J.: Perinatal delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure alters the responsiveness of hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons to dopamine-acting drugs in adult rats. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. (1997) 19:477-487.

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Greenland, S., Richwald, G. A., Honda, G. D.: The effects of marijuana use during pregnancy. II. A study in a low-risk home-delivery population. Drug Alcohol Depend. (1983) 11:359-366.

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Guy, R. H.: Percutaneous absorption: physical chemistry meets the skin. Curr. Probl. Dermatol. (1995) 22:132-138.

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Hall, W., Room, R., Bondy, S.: A comparative appraisal of the health and psychological consequences of alcohol, Cannabis, nicotine and opiate use. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto/Canada 1994b.

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Harclerode, J.: Endocrine effects of marijuana in the male: preclinical studies. NIDA Res. Monogr. (1984) 44:46-64.

Harmon, J., Aliapoulios, M. A.: Gynecomastia in marihuana users. N. Engl. J. Med. (1972) 287:936.

Harvey, D. J., Brown, N. K.: Comparative in vitro metabolism of the cannabinoids. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1991) 40:533-540.

Harvey, D. J.: Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids. In: Watson, R. R. (ed.): Biochemistry and Physiology of Substance Abuse. Volume III. Boca Raton, Florida 1991. p. 279-365.

Hatch, E. E., Bracken, M. B.: Effect of marijuana use in pregnancy on fetal growth. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1986) 124:986-993.

Hembree, W. C., 3d., Zeidenberg, P., Nahas, G. G.: Marihuana's effects on human gonadal function. In: Nahas, G. G., et al., (eds.): Marihuana: chemistry, biochemistry, and cellular effects. Springer, New York 1976. p. 521-532.

Hembree, W. C., 3d., Nahas, G. G., Zeidenberg, P., Huang, H. F.: Changes in human spermatozoa associated with high dose marihuana smoking. Adv. Biosci. (1978) 22-23:429-439.

Hemminki, K., Vineis, P.: Extrapolation of the evidence on teratogenicity of chemicals between humans and experimental animals: chemicals other than drugs. Teratog. Carcinog. Mutagen. (1985) 5:251-318.

Hernandez, M. L., Garcia-Gil, L., Berrendero, F., Ramos, J. A., Fernandez-Ruiz, J. J.: delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol increases activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in cultured fetal mesencephalic neurons. J. Mol. Neurosci. (1997) 8:83-91.

Hillard, C. J., Farber, N. E., Hagen, T. C., Bloom, A. S.: The effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on serum thyrotropin levels in the rat. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1984) 20:547-550.

Hingson, R., Alpert, J. J., Day, N., Dooling, E., Kayne, H., Morelock, S., Oppenheimer, E., Zuckerman, B.: Effects of maternal drinking and marijuana use on fetal growth and development. Pediatrics (1982) 70:539-546.

Hollister, L. E., Moore, F., Kanter, S., Noble, E.: Delta-1-tetrahydrocannabinol, synhexyl and marijuana extract administered orally in man: catecholamine excretion, plasma cortisol levels and platelet serotonin content. Psychopharmacologia (1970) 17:354-360.

Hollister, L. E., Reaven, G. M.: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and glucose tolerance. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1974) 16:297-302.

Hollister, L. E.: Health aspects of Cannabis. Pharmacol. Rev. (1986) 38:1-20.

Hollister, L. E.: Marijuana and immunity. J. Psychoactive Drugs (1992) 24:159-164.

Howlett, A. C.: Pharmacology of cannabinoid receptors. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1995) 35:607-634.

Hutchings, D. E., Brake, S., Morgan, B., Lasalle, E., Shi, T. M.: Developmental toxicity of prenatal delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: effects of maternal nutrition, offspring growth, and behavior. NIDA Res. Monogr. (1987) 76:363-369.

Hutchings, D. E., Martin, B. R., Gamagaris, Z., Miller, N., Fico, T.: Plasma concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in dams and fetuses following acute or multiple prenatal dosing in rats. Life Sci. (1989) 44:697-701.

Hutchings, D. E., Dow-Edwards, D.: Animal models of opiate, cocaine, and Cannabis use. Clin. Perinatol. (1991) 18:1-22.

Ings, R. M.: Interspecies scaling and comparison in drug development and and toxicokinetics. Xenobiotica (1990) 20:1201-1231.

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