Compiled by Eric E. Skidmore, P.O. Box 56, Chugiak, AK 99567
Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis Facultatis Medicae, Vol. 122, 1989, L. Hanus, D. Subova, pp.11-23. "The Amount of Main Cannabinoid Substances in Hemp, Cultivated for Industrial Fibre Production and Their Changes in the Course of One Vegetation Period." (English) Seasonal changes in cannabinoid content of Czech oslovak hemp variety Rastislavice grown industrially for fiber.
Agronomie, Vol. 1, 1981, pp. 679-688. "Les chimiotypes du chanvre. Interet pour un programme de selection." Gilbert Fournier. (French) Further advances the study to reduce THC content of French monoecious hemp, variety Fibrimon 56, to the lowest THC possible. Also gives a history of the hemp industry in France and current production and uses for hemp. Formerly France produced over 1/2 million acres of hemp. Today that production is down to 25,000 acres and is mostly used for specialty papers. The hemp seed is used in commercial animal feeds and as bait for fish.
America, Russia, Hemp, and Napoleon," Alfred Crosby, 1965, reveals how hemp was one of the main causes of the War of 1812 when Napoleon formed an alliance with the czar of Russia which cut off Great Britain's access to Russian hemp. At that time nearly all the marine hemp used in the world came from Russia.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 1990, Vol. 41, Zuskin, E., et al, pp. 285-296. "Respiratory Symptoms and Ventilatory Capacity in Hemp workers." (Croatian) This study from Zagreb, Croatia, indicates the problems encountered by industrial hemp workers.
Bedrijfsontwikkeling, Vol. 13 (9) Oct. 1982, pp. 851-2, p.856. W. F. du Bois. (Dutch) Illustrated. "Hemp as raw material for the paper industry."
Botanical Gazette, "Photoperiodic Responses of Hemp," Vol. 116, Sept. 1954, pp. 14-29, Borthwick, H.A., Scully, N.J. Photoperiod investigations were undertaken in order to improve methods of field production of hemp.
Compte Rendu Academie Agriculture de France, "Apercu de la Production de Chanvre en France," Fournier G., Paris M.R., Paris R.R., Vol. 62, 1976, pp. 1262-1270. (French). History and current, (1976) production of hemp (chanvre) in France. Reveals the unfortunate connection between hemp and the drug Cannabis. Shows how fiber and seed hemp grown for industrial purposes has no psychoactive effect. Gives current yields and shows where hemp is grown in France. Interestingly hemp is used as a wind-break in the hedgerows of the Rhone River valley. Used as fish bait. Various uses for hemp in specialty papers.
Crop Physiology of Fibre Hemp, 1994, Hayo van der Werf, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 152 p. Topics include: constraints to dry matter production, quality of hemp stems as a raw material for paper, the effect of temperature on leaf appearance and canopy establishment, effect of daylength on yield and fiber quality, plant density and self thinning effect on yield and quality of fiber, nitrogen fertilization effect on yield, sex expression and size variability. The potential of fibre hemp.
Diversity in Cannabis, 1994, Etienne de Meijer, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 140 p. Topics include: The CPRO Cannabis germplasm collection, variation of Cannabis for stem elongation and stem production, current methods to estimate pulp yield of hemp, variation of Cannabis stem quality for paper pulp, Cannabinoid content of fiber varieties, resistance to soil pathogens, bast fiber percentage and total fiber yield.
Economic Botany, 29: 1975, "The Evolution of Cannabinoid Phenotypes in Cannabis," Ernest Small, H.D. Beckstead, and Allan Chan, pp. 219-232. These researchers for the Canadian Department of Agriculture tested over 350 varieties of Cannabis in Ottawa, Ontario. They determined that there were two basic types of Cannabis based on genetic characteristics: a drug-type which originates in hot climates such as India and is high in THC but low in CBD and a fiber-type hemp which originates in temperate climates and is low in THC but high in CBD and is used industrially for fiber and food. This awareness of the separateness of the two types has vast agronomic potential. It means fiber hemp can be grown without the drug effect of 'marijuana.'
Economic Botany, 29: April-June, 1975, pp. 153-163. "Seasonal Fluctuations in Cannabinoid Content of Kansas Marijuana," R.P. Latta, and B.J. Eaton. Wild 'marijuana' growing in Riley County Kansas was found to be very low in THC content. The leaves and flowering tops averaged from 0.01-0.49% THC with a mean of 0.14% THC. CBD which blocks the psychoactive effects of THC was as high as 1.7% (Average marijuana seized by law enforcement agencies is about 3-3.5% THC.)
Euphytica 62: "Characterisation of Cannabis accessions with regard to cannabinoid content in relation to other plant characters," E.P.M. de Meijer, H.J. van der Kamp and F.A. van Euwijk, 1992, pp. 187-200. Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Ninety seven Cannabis accessions were evaluated. The relationship between chemical and other plant characters was very limited. A selection program will require direct analysis of cannabinoids.
Euphytica 62: "The CPRO Cannabis germplasm collection," E.P.M. de Meijer & L.J.M van Soest, 1992, pp.201-211. The National Hemp Program investigates the feasibility of hemp as a raw material for paper pulp production. This requires a breeding program that seeks to improve yield, quality and disease resistance.
Fibre Hemp in France, "Report of a visit to the Federation National des Producteurs de Chanvre at Le Mans." H.M.G. van der Werf, 30-31 July, 1992, Centre for Agrobiological Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands. (Unpublished) Topics covered include breeding, area of hemp cultivation, rotation, soil requirements and fertilization, harvesting, processing, prices, marketing and prospects for the future.
Fibres, Engineering and Chemistry, "Monoecious hemp breeding in the United States."1956, Vol. 17, Feaster, C.V., pp.339-340. Monoecious hemp has the advantage that all plants come to maturity at the same time.
First European Conference on Industrial Uses of Agricultural Crops, Maastricht, Netherlands, Nov. 1991. "Characterisation and Processing of Annual Crops (especially hemp) for Pulp and Paper." Marie-Jose de Smet, Agrotechnical Research Institute, ATO-DLO, Wageningen, Netherlands. Hemp shows promise as paper because it can be used with clean methods that overcome the serious environmental problems created by wood pulp and can use energy efficient processes.
Herba Hungarica, 1984, Vol. 23, #1-2, "Study on Cannabinoids Content in Hemp...I. Dioecious and Dioecious X Monoecious Types," Adzet, T., Coll, M.R., et al pp. 95-107. (French) The authors from Barcelona, Spain, cross monoecious French Fibrimon 56 hemp with dioecious Russian hemp to improve the variety and lower the THC content.
A History of the Hemp Industry in Kentucky, 1951, James F. Hopkins, University of Kentucky, Lexington. A very thorough book on hemp's history in the number one hemp producing state. Sen. Henry Clay was one of the largest hemp producers in America .
Indian Journal of Textile Research, "Study of Surface Characteristics of Hemp Fibres Using Scanning Electron Microscopy." M. Rahman, & M.H. Sayed-Esfahani, Vol. 4, Sept. 1979, pp. 115-120. The main surface characteristics of hemp fibres subjected to different chemical treatments have been elucidated using scanning electron microscopy. The surface characteristics are improved...with depectinization treatments.
Iowa Academy of Sciences, Vol. 58, 1951, pp. 221-228, "Nutrition and Aeration in relation to growth in Cannabis sativa," John R. Weber.
Journal of the Intentional Hemp Association, Vol. 1 No. 1, June 1994, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Topics covered include Cannabis germplasm collection in Russia, Hemp and soil pathogens, paper pulp technology in the Netherlands and the Ukraine, UK hemp project, hemp in Tasmania, hemp vs. poplar in the Ukraine.
Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin #221, June 27, 1919, pp 21-43, "Marketing Hemp," John R. Humphrey. Attempts to show the American hemp producer how to more effectively market his product so as to compete with foreign competition. Need for better quality and mechanization discussed. Illustrated.
New Scientist, "No marihuana: Plenty of Hemp," 13 November, 1980, pp. 433-435. Tim Malyon & Anthony Henman. French farmers are doing well out of the growing market for hemp fibres. Interesting and current production figures for the French hemp industry.
Pharmacological Reviews, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1971, "Chemistry of Marihuana," Coy Waller. One of the first studies that clearly shows that hemp-type marihuana grown for fiber is very low in THC, the psychoactive component that gets people high. The drug-type marihuana is very high in THC. Also the precursor agent Cannabidiol, CBD, which is not psychoactive, is very high in fiber-type hemp but very low in drug-type. This is important as CBD is known to block the effects of THC. This makes the hemp-type doubly useless for drug effects.
Physiologie et Vegetale, "Determination de chimiotypes a partir des cannabinoides chez le Chanvre a fibres monoique, possibilities de selection." 1980, 18 (2), pp. 349-356. Fournier & Paris. (French) Fibre monoecious hemp grown in France can be distinguished by two chemotypes. The study indicates that the plants higher in THC can be selected out of the population. If so the THC content can be reduced to 0.03% THC. The first results are encouraging.
Plant Physiology, Vol 11, 1936, "Time Factor in Utilization of Mineral Nutrients by Hemp," Sister Mary Etienne Tibeau, pp. 731-747. A nun from Mount Mercy College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, did extensive studies on the proper mineral nutrients to add to hemp for maximum growth and production.
Planta Medica, 53 (3) June 1987. "Identification of a New Chemotype in Cannabis sativa: Cannabigerol-Dominant Plants, Biogenetic and Agronomic Prospects." G. Fournier, et al pp. 277-280. Researchers at the University of Paris and the Le Mans Hemp Institute discovered a hemp variety practically devoid of THC... 0.001%. It is also CBG dominant, unique. This discovery represents a useful understanding as well as potential agronomic development for this plant.
Plantes Medicinales et Phytotherapie, "Paper-making type of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivated in France: Constituents (compared to those of marijuana)." Vol. 13 (2) April, 1979, pp. 116-121. Fournier & Paris (French) 10 mg. of THC is required to get a psychoactive effect from 'marijuana.' It would require 50-100 cigarettes of the French hemp cultivated for paper to get a psychoactive high.
Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Agricultural Wastes, 1985, pp. 338-345. Kempa, E.S., Bartoszewski, K. "Biological treatment of flax and hempen wastewater." How waste water from hemp and flax processing is treated in Poland.
Proceedings--Soil Science Society of America, Black, C.A., Vessel. A.J., 1944, "The Response of hemp to fertilizers in Iowa." pp.179-184. Shows crop yields in Iowa during the governments emergency program to grow hemp during World War II. One test plot had a yield of 21.2 tons per acre. Nitrogen added at a rate of 100 pounds per acre increased hemp yields by 2.47 tons. Nitrogen also increased the number of female plants.
Progress in Biotechnology, "Application of Enzymes in Flax and Hemp Technology," Vol. 4, 1988, pp. 483-491, Safarik, P., (A. Blazej, & J. Zemek, editors.) PIO Centroprojekt, Gottwaldov, Czechoslovakia. Pectolytic enzymes can shorten the dipping time for water retting hemp and markedly increase the fiber quality. This new closed system does not contribute waste water to streams. In fact the waste water is used to create phytoplankton and zooplankton and fed to fish.
Pulp & Paper International, Nov. 1994, "Back to the future for a profitable new industry." Susan Riddlestone, p. 50, 53. Local production for local needs based on flax and hemp--is decentralization the green way forward for the paper industry? Small scale pulping for local needs uses less energy and is environmentally sound.
Pulp & Paper International, Oct 1994, "Hemp: Papermakers should take it with a pinch of salt." Manfred Judt, pp.32-3. Hemp may be useful in the field of specialty papers, but will face strong competition from wood pulp and other plant fibers.
Pulp & Paper, July 1993, pp. 41-2. "Hemp Variations as Pulp Source Researched in the Netherlands." E.P.M.de Meijer. As a relatively low-input crop that can be grown at a wide range of latitudes, hemp seems very suitable for mass production of nonwood cellulose. The main factors which block the development of hemp as a pulp source are not botanical or agricultural, but industrial and political considerations.
Recent Developments in Pulp & Papermaking, 17th EUCEPA Conference, Vienna, Oct. 1977, "Complete Utilization of Hemp through Alkali-Oxygen & Chemi-Mechanical Process." A. Bosia, and D. Nisi, pp. 77-86. Italy produced half the world's hemp after World War II with 560,000 tons per annum. Hemp's subsequent decline caused by l) competition from synthetic fibers, 2) no technical improvement in hemp harvesting equipment or machinery for the separation of the long fibres from the woody core, 3) limited economic use of the short fibres of the woody core which account for 2/3 of the whole plant. Diagram of a hemp mill that does not require a retting process. Compares paper made from hemp hurds with poplar wood.
Report of a visit to the All-Union Scientific and Research Institute of Bast Crops, Gluckhov, Ukraine. Hennink, de Meijer & van der Werf, 5-14 July, 1991, Unpublished, CPRO-DLO, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Topics covered: Soviet hemp varieties, screening and evalution methods, genetic research, breeding program, agronomy, harvest technology, pulp & paper technology.
The Schlichten Papers, Don Wirtschafter, 1994, Athens, Ohio. Letters and correspondence between George Schlichten, inventor of a new hemp fiber decorticator, and representatives of the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain considering the possibilities of hemp as a source for newsprint. Includes patent office drawings and details of this important invention from 1917.
U.S.D.A. Bulletin #1935, Brittain B. Robinson, 1943, revised 1952, "Hemp." Shows farmers how to plant, grow, harvest, and ret hemp. Given to American farmers during World War II because our foreign sources of cordage fibers were cut off by the Japanese. Re-issued in 1952 during the Korean War when it was feared that our sources of foreign fibers might be cut off by the Communist Chinese.
U.S.D.A. Bulletin #404, Washington, Government Printing Office, 1916, Lyster Dewey and Jason Merrill, "Hemp Hurds as Paper-Making Material." Discusses the manufacture of paper from the inner portion of the hemp stalk, the xylem fibers or hurds. Dewey and Merrill established that one acre of hemp had the cellulose equivalent of 4.05 acres of trees on a yearly sustainable basis. This bulletin of 25 pages was actually printed on paper made from hemp hurds.
World Research and Development, 1975, "Hemp for refiner mechanical pulp," A. Bosia, p. 37,41. Utilization of the whole hemp stalk, including the hurds could make the crop more economically viable.
Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture, 1913, Washington, Government Printing Office, 1914. Lyster H. Dewey, "Hemp" pp. 283-346. Illustrated. One of the most thorough studies on the commercial, agricultural, industrial uses of hemp, Cannabis sativa L., ever written. Covers soil type, history, world production in 1913, development of better varieties, uses of hemp for fiber, seed, and as a rotation crop easy on the soil and resistant to pests and as a method to control weeds. Explains the agronomy of hemp in many countries of the world in 1913. A classic.
Compiled on Friday, 10 May 1996
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